Wundt to Lynchard: An Academic Lineage

Here, you can view my academic lineage from mentor to mentor starting with the Father of Psychology, Wilhelm Wundt. You’ll also find a brief list of major views, contributions, and publications of each.

Wundt

Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920)

Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig Germany. Although considered a Structuralist, this is an incorrect perception brought about by Titchener. Wundt considered his view to be "voluntarism," and strongly opposed mind-body dualisms. Wundt is often criticized for his use of introspection, although this method played a smaller role in his research than most people think. Wundt studied a number of issues including sensation and perception, response times, attention, "semantic memory," and emotions.


Academic Appointments:
1857-1863 – University of Heidelberg (lecturer in the Dept. of Physiology)
1863-1871 – Resignation and Hiatus
1871-1874 – Return to University of Heidelberg
1874-1875 – University of Zurich (Chair of Inductive Philosophy)
1875-1917 – University of Leipzig

Major Publications:
1873 & 1874 Grundzuge der Physiologischen Psychologie (Principles of Physiological Psychology).
1896 Grundriss der Psychcologie (Foundations of Psychology)
1900 to 1920 Volkerpsychologie (Cultural or Ethic Psychology). 10 volumes
1911 Einfuhrung in die Psychologie (An Introduction to Psychology)
1920 Erlebtes und Erkanntes (What I Have Experienced and Discovered)

Other Achievements:
1881 Established the journal: Philosophische Studien (Philosophical Studies)
1881-1902 Editor of Philosophische Studien

He was the director of 186 Ph.D. theses, 70 in philosophy and the rest in psychology, one of which was...

Titchener

Edward B. Titchener (1867-1927)

Titchener was an Englishman who brought Structuralism to America. For Titchener, a dualist, psychology was the "science of the mind". Titchener employed introspection more heavily than Wundt. Titchener felt that sensations, images, and feelings were the basic elements of thought. The goal of psychology was to understand these elements and how they interacted in different combinations. His brain is still on display in the psychology department at Cornell.



Academic Appointments:
1892 – Oxford University (lecturer in biology)
1892-1927 – Cornell University

Major Publications:
Titchener, E. B. (1901-1905). Experimental Psychology. New York: Macmillan.
Titchener, E. B. (1910). A Text Book of Psychology. New York: Macmillan.
Titchener, E. B. (1912). The schema of introspection. American Journal of Psychology, 23, 485- 508.
Boring, E. G., & Titchener, E. B. (1923). A model for the demonstration of facial expression. American Journal of Psychology, 34, 471-485.

Other Achievements:
1892-1897 Chair of Cornell’s Department of Psychology.
1894-1927 Editor of Studies from the Department of Psychology of Cornell University
1894-1917 Editor of Mind
1895-1920 Associate Editor of American Journal of Psychology
1904 Established The Experimentalists, an elite group of experimental psychologists. This eventually became the Society for Experimental Psychologists, which was to be one of the models for the Psychonomic Society.
1917 Turned down a position at Harvard
1921-1925 Editor of American Journal of Psychology
1927 Credited with helping found the Journal of General Psychology, although he was never listed in any editorial capacity.

He was the mentor of...

Boring

Edwin G. Boring (1886-1968)

One of psychology's first great historians. While he was Titchener's most loyal student, he did break with him on some important points. For instance, Boring was a monist and a physicalist. He married Lucy Day, another Titchener student, and their first son was born on Titchener's birthday. His research interests focused on psychophysical issues, such as the size-constancy problem and the moon illusion. He is also well-known for his young/old woman illusion.



Academic Appointments:
1913-1918 – Cornell University (instructor)
1918-1919 – U.S. Army
1919-1922 – Clark University (Professor)
1921 – Stanford University (summer session instructor)
1922-1968 – Harvard University

Major Publications:
Boring, E. G. (1921) The stimulus-error. American Journal of Psychology, 32, 449-471.
Boring, E. G. (1929). A History of Experimental Psychology
Holway, A. H., & Boring, E. G. (1941) Determinants of apparent visual size with distance variant. American Journal of Psychology, 54, 21-37.
Boring, E. G. (1953). A History of Introspection. Psychological Bulletin, 50, 169-189.

Other Achievements:
1919-1922 secretary for the American Psychological Association
1921-1925 / 1947-1967 editorial board for the American Journal of Psychology
1924-1950 director of the Harvard Psychological Laboratory
1926-1946 editor of the American Journal of Psychology
1928 President of the American Psychological Association
1929 Secretary of the American International Congress of Psychology
1934 Established Psychology as a separate department at Harvard.
1936 The Department of Psychology became completely independent of Philosophy.
1936-1938 Chair of Harvard's Department of Psychology.
1965-1968 Editorial board for the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences.

He was the mentor of . . .

Stevens

S. S. Stevens (1906-1973)

Most noted for the development of "Stevens' Law", an establishment of psychophysical and other psychological dimensions as following a power function rather than a logarithmic function. Boring said of him "Of all the graduate students who have worked with me, he is the one whose ultimate success I had the most certain belief, in whose future I made the largest investment of identification."


Academic Appointments:
1933-1973 – Harvard University

Major Publications:
Stevens, S. S., & Galanter, E. H. (1957) Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 377-411.
Stevens, S. S. (1957). On the psychophysical law. Psychological Review, 64, 153-181.
A collection of S. S. Stevens’ papers can be found at the University of Utah.

Other Achievements:
1936 Founding member of the Psychological Round Table
1940 Election to the Society for Experimental Psychologists
1943 Warren Medal
1946 Election to the National Academy of Sciences
1948 Presidential Certificate of Merit
1959 Election to the American Philosophical Society
1959 Founding member of the Psychonomic Society
1960 APA award for distinguished scientific contribution.
1962 Named Professor of Psychophysics at Harvard
1965-1971 Editorial board for Psychological Review.
1966-1971 Editorial board for Perception & Psychophysics

He was the mentor of...

Postman

Leo Postman (1918-2004)

Participant in the “New Look” in perception. A verbal learner instrumental in developing interference theories of forgetting.





Academic Appointments:
1946-1950 – Harvard University
1947 – Indiana University
1950-1987 – University of California at Berkeley

Major Publications:
Allport, G. W., & Postman (1947). The Psychology of Rumor. New York: Holt.
Postman, L. (1962). Psychology in the Making: Histories of Selected Research Problems. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Postman, L., Bruner, J.S., & McGinnies, E. (1948). Personal values as selective factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 142-154.
Postman, L., Stark, K., & Fraser, J. (1968). Temporal changes in interference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 672-694.
Postman, L., & Underwood, B.J. (1973). Critical issues in interference theory. Memory & Cognition, 1, 19-40.
Solomon, R. L., & Postman, L. (1952). Frequency of usage as a determinant of recognition threshold for words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 195-201.

Other Achievements:
1957-1963 Member of The Group for the Study of Verbal Behavior.
1959-1985 Editorial board of the Journal of General Psychology.
1962 Founding Editor of the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior which became the Journal of Memory and Language in 1985.
1962-1968 Editor of the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior.
1968 President of the Western Psychological Association
1969-1987 Editorial board of the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior
1968-1974 Associate Editor for the Journal of Experimental Psychology
1976-1987 Editorial board of the American Journal of Psychology.
1983-1987 Editorial board for Memory & Cognition
1968 President of the Western Psychological Association
1974 Received the Warren Medal of the Society of Experimental Psychologists
1987 Recipient of the Berkeley Citation

He was the mentor of...

Zacks

Rose T. Zacks

Well known for her work on frequency estimation, as well as, with Lynn Hasher, their theory of inhibitory decline that accompanies cognitive aging.





Academic Appointments:
1967-1971 – Temple University
1972-Present – Michigan State University

Major Publications:
Hasher, L. & Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 356-388.
Hasher, L. & Zacks, R. T. (1984). Automatic processing of fundamental information: The case of frequency of occurrence. American Psychologist, 39, 1372-1388.
Zacks, R.T., Radvansky, G.A., & Hasher, L. (1996). Studies of directed forgetting in older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 143-156.
Zacks, R.T., Hasher, L., & Li, Z. K. H. (2000) Human memory. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.) Handbook of Cognition and Aging, 2nd Edition (pp. 293-357). Mahwaw, NJ: Erlbaum.

Other Achievements:
1986-1989 Program Committee for the Midwestern Psychological Association
1988 Program Moderator for the Midwestern Psychological Association
1989-1992 Officer of the Midwestern Psychological Association
1990-1991, 2001-2004 Editorial board for Memory & Cognition
1992-1995 Associate Editor for the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
1994-1995 President of the Midwestern Psychological Association
1995-2000 Officer of the Psychonomic Society
1995-present Editorial board for the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
1996-1999 Editorial board for Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences
1997-1998, 2007-present Editorial board for Psychology and Aging
1999-2000 Chair of the Psychonomic Society
2003-2007 Editor of Psychology and Aging

She was the mentor of…

Zacks

G. A. Radvansky

Known for his work in lexical processing, memory for narratives, and memory using the situation model.




Academic Appointment:
1993-Present – The University of Notre Dame

Major Publications:
Radvansky, G. A. (2011). Human Memory, 2e. Allyn & Bacon.
Radvansky, G. A. (1999) Memory retrieval and suppression: The inhibition of situation models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 563-579.
Radvansky, G. A., & Copeland, D. E. (2001). Working memory and situation model updating. Memory & Cognition, 29, 1073-1080.
Radvansky, G. A., & Copeland, D. E. (2004). Working memory and situation model processing: Language comprehension and memory. American Journal of Psychology, 117, 191-213.
Radvansky, G. A., & Copeland, D. E. (2006) Situation models and retrieval interference: Pictures and words. Memory, 14, 614-623.

Other Achievements:
Associate Editor: Memory & Cognition 2001-2006
Associate Editor: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 2005-present
Editorial Board: Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 2004-2006

And, finally, he was the mentor of…

Lynchard

Nicholas A. Lynchard

Interests include: text processing, emotion activation, cognitive aging, academic assessment, and online instruction.

Assistant Professor of Psychology/Education

Appointment: 2009-Present – The State University of New York, Ulster.